Home Entertainment [Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 10 September 2022

[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 10 September 2022

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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

 

Table of Contents:

GS Paper2:

1. Basic skills poor in Hindi, but poorer in regional languages

 

GS Paper 3:

2. Betting on green hydrogen to fulfil energy needs ‘risky’

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)

1. Cultural Infrastructure

2. Expanding green cover

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Dara Shikoh

2. Rules relaxed for IAS, IPS officers to serve in J&K

3. Campaign to expand SHG footprint

4. Relook at fee for 50% seats in private medical colleges

5. EC’s move to weed out shady political parties

6. The Gender Snapshot 2022 Report

7. India-Japan 2+2 Ministerial dialogue

8. SETU

9. FM tasks RBI to ‘whitelist’ legal loan apps to protect borrowers

10. Kirit Parikh Committee

11. Tipping Points

12. Swachh Vayu Diwas


 

Basic skills are poor in Hindi, but poorer in regional languages

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Issues related to the development of the social sector involving education etc

 

Source: The Hindu, The Hindu

Direction: There are too many data and points. No need to remember those. Just understand the crux of the issues.

 

Context:

      • Foundational learning of students in Hindi is poor but their performance in regional languages in some States was even worse, according to a survey by the Union Ministry of Education and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).

  

Key Highlights:

      • National Report on Benchmarking of Oral Reading Fluency
        • Aim: It aims to assess the foundational learning of children at the end of class 3.
      • Hindi: Around 53% of class 3 students in 18 States surveyed either lacked or had limited knowledge and skills in reading and comprehending the Hindi language.

  

Proficiency in regional language:

      • Kannada: Analyzed in the States of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala-59% of students either lacked or displayed limited skills.
      • Assamese: 67% of students couldn’t perform well in Assam and Meghalaya.
      • Malayalam: 56% of students couldn’t read or comprehend Malayalam properly
      • Khasi: 61% of students couldn’t perform well
      • Urdu: Assessed in 13 States, 65% of learners couldn’t perform well.
      • Skills in math: The study found that the most basic knowledge and skills in numeracy were either lacking or limited in 48% of Class 3 students.
      • Worst performers: Among the States, Tamil Nadu was the worst performer, followed by Nagaland and Jammu & Kashmir.
      • Limited skills with numbers: In all, there were 11 States with more than 50% of students who either lacked or had limited skills with numbers.

 

Knowledge and skills: The survey divides learners on the basis of their knowledge and skills into four categories:

      • Those who lack them
      • Have limited proficiency
      • Sufficient competency
      • Those who are superior
      • The sample included:
        • State government schools
        • Government-aided schools
        • Private recognised
        • Central government schools.

 

National Education Policy 2022:

      • Three-language formula: It advocates for a three-language formula where two of the languages are native to India
      • Mother tongue as a medium: It says that the medium of instruction till at least class 5 or preferably till class 8 should be in the mother tongue, after which it can be taught as a language.
      • Foundational learning: It also emphasizes the importance of foundational learning.

 

NIPUN Scheme:

      • It is a national mission to enable all children at the end of class 3 to attain foundational skills by the year 2026-2027.
      • It aims to cover the learning needs of children in the age group of 3 to 9 years.

  

Importance of Multilingualism:

      • Equal status: It gives equal status to all languages and there’s enough work, history and research on this.
      • First-generation learners: Children come from different backgrounds, and in some cases, they are first-generation learners with not much support at home.
      • Democratic: It accepts that the teacher is not coming from a place of authority and is only correcting spellings and pronunciations.

 

Insta Links:

NEP 2020

Mains Link:

Q. National Education Policy 2020 is in line with Sustainable Development Goals-4 (2030). It intended to restructure and re-orient the education system in India. Critically examine the statement(UPSC 2020)

 

Prelims links:

With reference to National Education Policy(NEP) 2020, consider the following statements:

    1. The NEP proposes the extension of the Right to Education (RTE) to all children up to the age of 18.
    2. The policy recognises the primacy of the formative years from ages 3 to 6 in shaping the child’s future.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (a)

Justification:

current affairs

Betting on green hydrogen to fulfil energy needs is‘ risky’

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Science and Technology and Environmental Conservation

 

Source: D2E

Direction: Have basic notes on ‘Green Hydrogen’ esp. those giving Mains this time

 

Context: As per the study published in the journal Nature Energy, Green hydrogen would likely supply less than 1 per cent of final energy globally by 2035.

  

What is green hydrogen?

Hydrogen when produced by electrolysis using renewable energy is known as Green Hydrogen which has no carbon footprint.

 

Challenges for green hydrogen:

      • Low investment
      • Low stage of technology for sustainable production
      • The challenges in ramping up the supply of electrolysers — a device in which green hydrogen is produced
        • Electrolysis capacity is still tiny compared to where we need to be in 2050 for Net Zero emissions scenarios

 

Recommendations:

      • Implementing strong policies could reverse the setbacks
        • Fostering green hydrogen growth will therefore require strong dedication, coordination and funding along the entire value chain,
      • Carbon pricing should always form the basis of climate policy
        • Carbon pricing is a policy tool that puts a tax on producers of greenhouse gas emissions
      • Accelerating the roll-out of crucial zero-carbon technologies like electric mobility and heat pumps.
        • These technologies make more efficient use of scarce renewable electricity

 

Significance for Green hydrogen:

India, being a tropical country, has a significant edge in green hydrogen production due to its favourable geographical conditions and abundant natural resources.

      • Producing hydrogen from renewables in India is likely to be cheaper than producing it from natural gas.

 

Efforts in this regard:

      1. National Hydrogen Mission (increase production to 5 million metric tonnes (MMT) by 2030 to meet about 40 per cent of domestic requirements)
      2. Green hydrogen and green ammonia policy that offers 25 years of free power transmission for any new renewable energy plants set up for green hydrogen production before July 2025.
      3. EU set a target of achieving 10 million tonnes of domestic renewable hydrogen production

 

Intra Links:

Green Hydrogen

Prelims Links

Hydrogen is an invisible gas. But, then how are they named green, pink and so on? Read here.

      1. About Green Hydrogen.
      2. How is it produced?
      3. Applications.
      4. Benefits.
      5. About the Hydrogen Energy Mission.

Mains Link:

Q. Discuss the benefits of Green Hydrogen.

 

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)


Cultural Infrastructure

Source: Indian Express

Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that along with social and digital infrastructure, India is also working on cultural infrastructure. He also said that in the form of Kartavya Path, the country is getting one more excellent example of cultural infrastructure.

Cultural Infrastructure means the buildings, structures and places where culture is consumed: Places where culture is experienced, participated in, showcased, exhibited or sold.

For example, museums, galleries, theatres, cinemas, libraries, music venues and historic cultural sites.

Importance of Cultural Infrastructure:

      • To have a sense of unity among people
      • Protecting historical and cultural structures
      • Increasing tourism – thus boosting economy.

 

 

Expanding green cover

Source: Indian Express

Fazilka district of Punjab has become a trendsetter in expanding forest cover. As of 2021, according to data from the Forest Research Institute, the district had just 1.34 per cent forest cover, one of the lowest in the state.

They launched a pilot project called “My village, My Forest”. The idea was to target an unused one-acre plot of land in Kuharianwali village and develop a “forest” by applying the so-called Miyawaki method. In less than a year, the efforts have borne fruit with the area now full of firm plants such as kachnar, neem, Arjun, Ashok, Jamun, guava and others.

 Benefits of this project:

      • The forests give residents of the villages a sense of belonging. As these forests are being raised by our villagers, it gives us a sense of belonging, a desire to protect and conserve them
      • The workforce required for making lakhs of saplings is coming from Mgnrega

 Miyawaki method:

The Miyawaki method, which was devised by Japanese botanist Akira Miyawaki in the 1980s, is a technique to create micro forests over small plots of land. Achieving this goal requires planting a wide variety of plants in a fairly dense manner so that the plot of land has different layers of a forest such as shrubs and canopies and not just trees.

 


Facts for Prelims


Dara Shikoh

Source: ThePrint

 Context: On the occasion of releasing the Arabic Version of “Majma Ul-Bahrain” of Dara Shikoh Vice President said that India has a glorious heritage of not only ‘tolerance’ for others’ views, but a unique culture of ‘engagement’ with all views – a culture of pluralism and syncretism.

Majma-ul-Bahrain (which means ‘Confluence of Two Oceans’) throws invaluable light on the similarities between religions and helped bring stronger unity among the people of India.

In this book ‘Majma-ul-Bahrain’, Dara Shikoh listed one by one, all the commonalities between Hinduism (Vedanta) and Islam (Sufism) and came to the conclusion that the difference between Islam and Hinduism is only verbal.

 

About Dara Shikoh:

      • Eldest son of Shah Jahan, he is described as a “liberal Muslim”who tried to find commonalities between Hindu and Islamic traditions.
      • Known as a pioneer of the academic movement for interfaith understanding in India.
      • In 1655, his father declared him the Crown Prince but was defeated by Aurangzeb, his younger brother.

 

Works:

      • His most important works, Majma-ul-Bahrain (Mingling of Two Oceans) and Sirr-i-Akbar (Great Mystery) are devoted to the cause of establishing connections between Hinduism and Islam
      • Proficiency in Sanskrit and Persian, enabled him to play a key role in popularising Indian culture.
      • He translated the Upanishadsand other important sources of Hindu religion and spirituality from Sanskrit to Persian.

 

Rules relaxed for IAS, and IPS officers to serve in J&K

Source: The Hindu

Context:

      • The Center has relaxed the norms to encourage the All India Services and other Central Services officers to get posted in Jammu and Kashmir.

 

Key Highlights:

      • Requirements that have been waved off:
        • Cooling off period
        • Stringent norms for inter-cadre deputation
      • Inter-cadre deputation is only given under compelling circumstances, one being marriage.
      • Due to this relaxation, 22 officers belonging to various services and different cadres have been posted in Jammu & Kashmir at various levels.

 

All India Services (AIS):

      • Indian Administrative Service (IAS)
      • Indian Police Service (IPS)
      • Indian Forest Service (IFoS)

 

Deputation of AIS Officer:

      • Offer list: The Center asks for an “offer list” of officers of the All India Services willing to go on central deputation, after which it selects officers from that list.
      • No objection clearance: Officers have to get a no-objection clearance from the State government for Central deputation.
      • Deputation by states: States have to depute the All India Services (AIS) officers, to the Central government offices and at any point
        • It cannot be more than 40% of the total cadre strength.

 

Campaign to expand SHG footprint

Source: The Hindu

Context:

      • The Ministry of Rural Development announced a nationwide campaign for the inclusion of women who are left out of the umbrella of SHGs under the Deen Dayal Upadhyay National Rural Livelihood Mission.

 

Self-Help Groups (SHGs):

      • It can be defined as a self-governed, peer-controlled information group of people with similar socio-economic backgrounds and having a desire to collectively perform a common purpose.
      • They are informal associations of people who choose to come together to find ways to improve their living conditions.
      • India has over 74 lakhSHGs under DAY-NRLM

Functions:

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM):

●        It is a centrally sponsored programme, launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in June 2011.

●        Aim: To eliminate rural poverty through:

○        Promotion of multiple livelihoods

○        Improved access to financial services for the rural poor households across the country.

●        To reach out to all rural poor households and impact their livelihoods.

 

Relook at the fee for 50% seats in private medical colleges

Source: The Hindu

Context:

      • The Madras High Court directed the National Medical Commission (NMC) to reconsider an office memorandum issued by HC.
      • HC insisted that the fee for 50% of the seats at deemed-to-be universities and self-financing medical colleges be on a par with the fee collected by government medical colleges.

 

Key Highlights:

      • Issues with NMC Memorandum: The judges said it has failed to consider the possibility of the poor students, who could not gain a seat on merit for lack of coaching.
      • Section 10 (1)(i) of the NMC Act: The Chief Justice upheld the constitutional validity of this provision.
        • It empowers the NMC to frame guidelines for the determination of fees and other charges in respect of 50% of the seats in private medical institutions and deemed-to-be universities.
      • Regulation of fee structure: The Chief Justice said the fee structure at the deemed universities should also be regulated to avoid the exploitation of students.

 

National Medical Commission:

      • The Center notified the 33-member NMC by the National Medical Commission Act.
      • Members:
        • Chairman
        • 10 ex-officio members
        • 22 part-time members appointed by the Central government.

 

Functions of NMC:

      • Policies: Laying down policies for regulating medical institutions and medical professionals.
      • Requirements: Assessing the requirements of human resources and infrastructure in healthcare.
      • Compliance: Ensuring compliance by the State Medical Councils with the regulations made under the Bill.
      • Guidelines: Framing guidelines for determination of fees for up to 50% of the seats in the private medical institutions.

 

EC’s move to weed out shady political parties

Source: Times of India

Context:

      • Income Tax officials carried out pan-India raids on registered unrecognized political parties (RUPPs).

 

Key Highlights:

      • EC data showed there were 2,796 RUPPs a year ago, a 300% increase over two decades.
      • In the 2019 Lok Sabha election, only 30% of RUPPs conteste
      • RUPPs are entitled to 100% income tax exemption provided they meet conditions pertaining to furnishing tax returns.

 

Registered Unrecognized Political Parties:

      • Either newly registered parties or those which have not secured enough percentage of votes in the assembly or general elections to become a state party.

OR

      • Those which have never contested elections since being registered are considered unrecognized parties.
      • They do not enjoy all the benefits extended to the recognised parties.

 

 

The Gender Snapshot 2022 Report

Source: UN Women

 Direction: While one cannot remember all the reports by all the bodies. Do keep watching important ones. As for this report, just go through this.

 Context: UNDESA and UN Women released this report.

 Key findings:

      • At the current rate, it will take 286 years to achieve full gender equality
      • More women and girls live in extreme poverty than men and boys
        • Extreme poverty is living on less than the US $1.9 a day
      • Women hold only 2 out of 10 jobs in Science and Technology

 Recommendations: Cooperation on gender equality agenda, investment in gender needs, removal of structural barriers and reform gender biased laws.

 

 

India-Japan 2+2 Ministerial dialogue

Source: Business-Standards

 Direction: India has a 2+2 dialogue format with only a few countries. Do know the names of them.

Context: 2nd Indo-Japan ministerial dialogue will be held in Tokyo.

 

Foreign and Defence ministers of India and its ally (2+2)  meet regularly to understand each other’s strategic concerns and build stronger ties.

      • India has 2+2 dialogues with four key strategic partners: the US, Australia, Japan, and Russia.

India-Japan collaboration:

      • Principles involved: Promote rules-based order, Respect for International law and norms, open navigation in common waters, and safeguarding global commons.
      • Development collaboration: Quad, Supply Chain Resilience Initiatives, Asia-Africa Growth Corridors, Mutual Logistics and supply agreement (MLSA)
      • Exercises: Fighter Exercises (Air force); Dharma Guardian(Joint Military Exercise); JIMEX (Navy) and Malabar (India-US-Japan-Australia maritime exercise)

 

SETU

Source: Business-Standards

 

Context: Supporting Entrepreneurs in Transformation and Upskilling  (SETU) will connect start-ups in India with US-based investors, mentors and leaders.

 

      • Interactions can be done using the mentorship portal under the Startup India initiative MAARG (Mentorship, Advisory, Assistance, Resilience and Growth) Programme.
        • MAARG is a single-stop solutions finder for startups in India.

 

      • Ministry: Commerce and Industry

India ranks globally 3rd in the startup ecosystem and also in terms of the number of Unicorns. As per the latest data, there are currently 105 unicorns.

 

FM tasks RBI to ‘whitelist’ legal loan apps to protect borrowers

Source: Live Mint

 

Context: Government has asked the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to prepare a so-called approved ‘white list’ of digital lending apps to stamp out those using unethical means to exploit vulnerable customers.

      • The ministry of electronics and information technology will ensure that only apps on the approved list are hosted on app stores
      • RBI last month issued guidelines for digital lending platforms to protect borrowers

Concerns:

      • Increasing instances of illegal loan apps offering loans/micro credits, at exorbitantly high-interest rates and processing/hidden charges, and predatory recovery practices.
      • Possibility of money laundering, tax evasion, breach of data privacy and misuse of unregulated payment aggregators, shell companies, and defunct non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) for perpetrating such actions.

 

Kirit Parikh Committee

Source: Economic Times

Context: The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has set up a committee under noted energy expert Kirit Parikh to review the current gas pricing formula.

Consumption of LPG in the country – mainly used as cooking fuel – rose 3.75% in January to a record high of 2.569 million tonnes in January.

      • The flagship scheme of the government Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) has made a significant contribution to enhancing the penetration of LPG, especially in rural areas.
      • The renewed targets under the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) aim to provide LPG connections to 10 crore households before January 31, 2022.

The panel has been asked to recommend a fair price to end consumers and also suggest a “market-oriented, transparent and reliable pricing regime for India’s long-term vision for ensuring a gas-based economy”.

 

 

Tipping Points

Source: D2E

 Direction: Have basic knowledge about major ecological terms such as ‘Carrying capacity’, ‘Tipping Point’, etc.

 Context: Scientists sound alarm as the number of climate tipping elements rises.

“Climate tipping points” are levels of ecological changes, if crossed, could spark a significant change in the way the Earth’s systems operate, affecting oceans, weather and chemical processes, which could be “irreversible” and self continuing even if there is no further warming.

The six tipping points “likely” to be crossed are:

      • Greenland Ice Sheet collapse
      • West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse
      • Collapse of ocean circulation in the polar region of the North Atlantic
      • Coral reefs die off in the low latitudes
      • Sudden thawing of permafrost in the Northern regions
      • Abrupt sea ice loss in the Barents Sea.

 

Swachh Vayu Diwas

Source: WHO

 Direction: Have a note prepared for NCAP and WHO air quality guidelines (asked last year in Mains)

 Context: In order to raise awareness of pollution, the 3rd International Day of Clean Air for Blue Skies (“Swachh Vayu Neel Gagan”) or “Swachh Vayu Diwas” was organized under NCAP (National Clean Air programme).

      • NCAP (launched in 2019) aims to bring a 20-30% reduction in pollution levels from PM2.5 and PM10 particles by 2024 from 2017 levels as a base.
      • Implementation by CPCB in over 132 most polluted cities.
      • WHO Global Air Quality Guidelines: For 6 pollutants: PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀, ozone (O₃), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂) and carbon monoxide (CO).
      • Recommendations are not legally binding

 


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